Geography at NOVA - Alexandria campus

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More medieval terracotta sculptures in the distinctive style of the Niger's Inland Delta. The lines on the face of this woman from Djenne, Mali, are likely to be intiatory scarification, widely known in West and Central Africa.

Context for this huge oasis region and its pivotal role in the history of West Africa: "The Niger River is the third longest river in Africa and one of the fifteen longest in the world, reaching about 4,200km from the interior to the Atlantic. Its long flow and unusual course have helped to make it important to commerce and culture throughout much of West Africa.

"The Niger River begins in the Futa Jalon highlands of Guinea where it takes a northerly route into Mali. As the river reaches farther north into the Sahara Desert, it joins with tributaries and fans out into a large network of lakes, streams, and marshes. This part of the river, called the Niger Inland Delta, forms a large oasis in an otherwise arid zone.

"The ancient kingdoms of Gao and Mali emerged in the area, using the inland delta as a source of water, food, and commerce. The trading port of Timbuktu stands at the northeastern end of the delta. [In spite of the Eurocentric insult that made Timbuktu stand for the remote ends of the earth, it was the major center of Muslim learning in the Sahel.] From there, the river flows east and then southeast before entering the country of Niger. Passing along the border of Benin, the river enters Nigeria where it turns south toward the Atlantic."


Understanding the past helps to ensure our future.

This spectacular 100-foot steel tower once helped USGS employees record streamflow data in the Columbia River near The Dalles, Oregon. It is one of three USGS Water Resources streamgages being recognized for the first time by the World Meteorological Organization for its scientific and cultural significance. The other streamgages are located in Kentucky and New Mexico. These are three of many USGS streamgages that have been contributing to understanding long-term effects of water levels for over 100 years across the U.S.

More than 100 years of water level data provide essential data for scientists worldwide to better understand climate trends and patterns, including floods and droughts.

Read more:


Another spectacular example for folding in the Swiss Alps: aerial photo of the Sichelkamm mountain, Switzerland ⁣(2269 m a.s.l.). The huge fold (syncline) in the flank of the Sichelkamm mountain is an impressive reference to the collision between Africa and Europe. The layers, originally deposited on the sea floor in a horizontal position, were compressed and shifted. The large fold is formed by Cretaceous limestone of the so-called Säntis nappe.


Ocean views all day, every day 🌎

An International Space Station astronaut captured this view of Destin, Florida, a beach city situated on the Gulf of Mexico coastline. Here, the East Pass allows boats to travel between the Gulf of Mexico and Choctawhatchee Bay.

Destin is part of Florida’s Emerald Coast, an area which spans about 100 miles (160 kilometers) of the Florida Panhandle. The beaches in this area are known for their “sugary white” sand and green-toned waters. The white sand is comprised primarily of quartz grains that were transported from the southern Appalachian Mountains by the Apalachicola River system. Sunlight interacting with algae in the water produces the emerald color.

This peninsula was initially a barrier island. Over time, coastal processes including hurricanes, sand transport, and changing sea levels connected the peninsula to mainland Florida.


9 captured this view of the summit crater of Mount Erebus, the world’s southernmost active volcano, above the clouds on November 25, 2023.

One of several volcanoes forming Ross Island off the coast of West Antarctica, it rises to 3,794 meters (12,448 feet) above sea level. These volcanoes occur in a right zone where extension has caused the crust to thin and allowed magma to migrate up through faults to the surface.


Homi Kharas shares insights from his latest book: "The Rise of the Global Middle Class (Brookings, 2023)."


Anthropologist Zelia Nuttall transformed the way we think of ancient Mesoamerica


Fire or ice? 🔥🧊

To human eyes, Alaska’s Malaspina Glacier appears white tinged with blue. But in this false-color (also called enhanced color) image, the rippled ice appears more fiery than frosty. The image was processed such that watery features are displayed in reds, oranges, and yellows; vegetation appears green; and rock is shown in shades of blue.

The dark blue lines on the ice are moraines—areas where soil, rock, and other debris have been scraped up by the glacier and deposited along its edges. The zigzag pattern is caused by changes in the ice’s velocity. Glaciers in this area of Alaska periodically “surge” or lurch forward for one to several years, causing the moraines to fold, compress, and shear to form the characteristic textures seen here on Malaspina.


India's Deccan Plateau terrain is rocky and marked by boulders, with an elevation ranging between 100 and 1,000 metres (330 and 3,280 ft), with an average of about 600 metres (2,000 ft). It slopes generally eastward, which has affected the drainage development. its principal rivers—the Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri (Cauvery)—flow eastward from the Western Ghats to the Bay of Bengal. The plateau is drier than the coastal region of southern India and is arid in places.

Text /Figure As seen here


The prehistoric peoples of Central Europe didn't disappear after their social order collapsed in 1600 BC. They spread, and thrived.


It’s ! 🎉

This month honors the traditions, stories and languages of Indigenous people nationwide.

A Landsat image above Utqiagvik, Alaska, near the Arctic Circle. The village’s traditional Inupiaq name, which means the place for gathering wild roots


To support assessing power capacity in the U.S., the USGS created the WindFarm Mapper to show all wind turbines located across the country.

The mapper is useful for a variety of analyses, including studying ecosystem and community impacts from wind energy utility developments.

Learn more about the interactive WindFarm Mapper here:


The sun will set in Utqiagvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska at 1:48 PM AKST today and will not rise again until January 23rd!


This shot of Denver was taken from the International Space Station, looking east. You can see the curvature of the Earth.

Not bad for an office view!

Actually most people of European descent have Spanish or Italian ancestry.

Actually most people of European descent have Spanish or Italian ancestry.

People who don't know flags: what a pretty cake.
People who know flags: 😬

Pst: it's just a convenient post to talk about ratlines.


Map by gontsa 🇺🇦 shows the North American cities with sizable Ukrainian populations. Ukrainians didn’t venture far from their home latitudes when migrating across the Atlantic.


The USDA has just released a new Plant Hardiness Zone Map, the first new version since 2012. The map is based on 30-year averages (1991 to 2020) for the lowest annual winter temperatures. The new data, along with the addition of more temperature stations and better mapping techniques, shifted about half the country into a warmer half-zone (such as Zone 6a to 6b). Find your current zone by entering your ZIP code on the map at this link:


Malaspina ( 🇺🇸) is the largest piedmont in the world

It covers more than 3,900 square kilometres, which is more than many European cities, including Berlin and Paris

⬇️ 🇪🇺🛰️ image of 24 October


This interactive map tracks China’s growing maritime influence through investments in strategic overseas ports. Users can plot the location of each port and view satellite images alongside detailed i…


Atmospheric River—A long, narrow, and transient corridor of strong horizontal water v***r transport that is typically associated with a low-level jet stream ahead of the cold front of an extratropical cyclone.

The water v***r in atmospheric rivers is supplied by tropical and/or extratropical moisture sources. Atmospheric rivers frequently lead to heavy precipitation where they are forced upward—for example, by mountains or by ascent in the warm conveyor belt. Horizontal water v***r transport in the midlatitudes occurs primarily in atmospheric rivers and is focused in the lower troposphere. Atmospheric rivers are the largest "rivers" of fresh water on Earth, transporting on average more than double the flow of the Amazon River.

Read about the Atmospheric River through the :


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