The Department of Physics & Astronomy at George Mason University

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The Department of Physics & Astronomy at George Mason University

Mission: The mission of the Department of Physics & Astronomy is to disseminate and advance the field of physics and astronomy through instruction, research and outreach.

"Before there were animals, bacteria or even DNA on Earth, self-replicating molecules were slowly evolving their way fro...
05/21/2020
Cosmic rays may have left indelible imprint on early life, physicists say

"Before there were animals, bacteria or even DNA on Earth, self-replicating molecules were slowly evolving their way from simple matter to life beneath a constant shower of energetic particles from space." #Physics #ThursdayWisdom
https://phys.org/news/2020-05-cosmic-rays-left-indelible-imprint.html

Before there were animals, bacteria or even DNA on Earth, self-replicating molecules were slowly evolving their way from simple matter to life beneath a constant shower of energetic particles from space.

"Russian researchers trace high-energy neutrino origins to black holes in far-off quasars." #Astronomy #Space #Physics #...
05/19/2020
Russian Astrophysicists Trace Neutrinos – Mysterious “Ghost Particles” – From Where No One Had Expected

"Russian researchers trace high-energy neutrino origins to black holes in far-off quasars." #Astronomy #Space #Physics #Astrophysics #TuesdayThoughts
https://scitechdaily.com/russian-astrophysicists-trace-neutrinos-mysterious-ghost-particles-from-where-no-one-had-expected/

Russian researchers trace high-energy neutrino origins to black holes in far-off quasars. Russian astrophysicists have come close to solving the mystery of where high-energy neutrinos come from in space. The team compared the data on the elusive particles gathered by the Antarctic neutrino observ

"Theorists show that collisions between particles with orbital angular momentum could offer a new way to study intrinsic...
05/14/2020
A Twist on Particle Collisions

"Theorists show that collisions between particles with orbital angular momentum could offer a new way to study intrinsic spin properties." #Collisions #Physics #ThursdayThoughts

https://physics.aps.org/articles/v13/s66

Theorists show that collisions between particles with orbital angular momentum could offer a new way to study intrinsic spin properties.

"By listening to the beating hearts of stars, astronomers have for the first time identified a rhythm of life for a clas...
05/14/2020
Astronomers find regular rhythms among pulsating stars

"By listening to the beating hearts of stars, astronomers have for the first time identified a rhythm of life for a class of stellar objects that had until now puzzled scientists." #Stars #Astronomy #ThursdayThoughts

https://phys.org/news/2020-05-mysterious-delta-scuti-stars-surrender.html

By listening to the beating hearts of stars, astronomers have for the first time identified a rhythm of life for a class of stellar objects that had until now puzzled scientists.

Researchers at UC Santa Cruz have developed a powerful new computer program called Morpheus..." #Galaxy #astronomy #Tech...
05/12/2020
Powerful new AI technique detects and classifies galaxies in astronomy image data

Researchers at UC Santa Cruz have developed a powerful new computer program called Morpheus..." #Galaxy #astronomy #TechnologyNews #TuesdayTrivia
https://phys.org/news/2020-05-powerful-ai-technique-galaxies-astronomy.html

Researchers at UC Santa Cruz have developed a powerful new computer program called Morpheus that can analyze astronomical image data pixel by pixel to identify and classify all of the galaxies and stars in large data sets from astronomy surveys.

"Princeton researchers detect a supercurrent — a current flowing without energy loss — at the edge of a superconductor w...
05/08/2020
A Discovery That Long Eluded Physicists: Superconductivity to the Edge

"Princeton researchers detect a supercurrent — a current flowing without energy loss — at the edge of a superconductor with a topological twist." #physics #energy #FridayReads
https://scitechdaily.com/a-discovery-that-long-eluded-physicists-superconductivity-to-the-edge/

Princeton researchers detect a supercurrent — a current flowing without energy loss — at the edge of a superconductor with a topological twist. A discovery that long eluded physicists has been detected in a laboratory at Princeton. A team of physicists detected superconducting currents — the f...

"Astronomers have long studied supermassive black holes and smaller black holes that form when massive stars implode, bu...
05/07/2020
Elusive 'missing link' black hole discovered by Hubble

"Astronomers have long studied supermassive black holes and smaller black holes that form when massive stars implode, but they have searched for intermediate-mass black holes for years." #BlackHole #Astronomy #ThursdayThoughts
https://www.cnn.com/2020/04/02/world/black-hole-missing-link-scn-trnd/index.html

Thanks to observations by the Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers have found their "missing link" to understand how black holes evolve. They were able to confirm the observation of an intermediate-mass black hole, known as an IMBH, inside a dense cluster of stars.

"A bright flare recently detected from a magnetic neutron star in our galaxy might help reveal one of the greatest myste...
05/06/2020
Fast radio bursts could be far-flung magnetars, new evidence suggests

"A bright flare recently detected from a magnetic neutron star in our galaxy might help reveal one of the greatest mysteries in modern astronomy: What are FRBs?" #astronomy #galaxy #space
https://astronomy.com/news/2020/05/fast-radio-bursts-could-be-far-flung-magnetars-new-evidence-suggests

A bright flare recently detected from a magnetic neutron star in our galaxy might help reveal one of the greatest mysteries in modern astronomy: What are FRBs?

"Researchers in the US have created a new energy-based benchmark for quantum advantage and have used it to show that noi...
05/04/2020
Quantum computers vastly outperform supercomputers when it comes to energy efficiency – Physics World

"Researchers in the US have created a new energy-based benchmark for quantum advantage and have used it to show that noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) computers use several orders of magnitude less energy than the world’s most powerful supercomputer when doing a specific task."
#Quantum #Physics #Supercomputer #Mondaythoughts
https://physicsworld.com/a/quantum-computers-vastly-outperform-supercomputers-when-it-comes-to-energy-efficiency/

NISQs consume orders of magnitude less energy than conventional processors, researchers say

"Now for the first time ever, an international team of astrophysicists simulated the three-dimensional (3-D) physics of ...
04/27/2020
World's first 3-D simulations of superluminous supernovae

"Now for the first time ever, an international team of astrophysicists simulated the three-dimensional (3-D) physics of superluminous supernovae—which are about a hundred times more luminous than typical supernovae."
#supernova #astrophysics
https://phys.org/news/2020-04-world-d-simulations-superluminous-supernovae.html?fbclid=IwAR1mMAP8jiE1IQsFziDTKD3gIICyfa2b5EoUFAbb81CdHg_4JgZMD1JuMZA

For most of the 20th century, astronomers have scoured the skies for supernovae—the explosive deaths of massive stars—and their remnants in search of clues about the progenitor, the mechanisms that caused it to explode, and the heavy elements created in the process. In fact, these events create ...

"One important question in the field of HED science is how matter under high-pressure conditions might emit or absorb ra...
04/24/2020
New high-energy-density physics research provides insights about the universe

"One important question in the field of HED science is how matter under high-pressure conditions might emit or absorb radiation in ways that are different from our traditional understanding." #Atoms #Physics #FridayFinds

https://phys.org/news/2020-04-high-energy-density-physics-insights-universe.html

Atoms and molecules behave very differently at extreme temperatures and pressures. Although such extreme matter doesn't exist naturally on the earth, it exists in abundance in the universe, especially in the deep interiors of planets and stars. Understanding how atoms react under high-pressure condi...

"While many black hole mergers have been detected thanks to LIGO and Virgo’s international network for detectors, this p...
04/23/2020
Astronomers Detected a Black Hole Merger With Very Different Mass Objects - Universe Today

"While many black hole mergers have been detected thanks to LIGO and Virgo’s international network for detectors, this particular signal (GW190412) was the first where the two black holes had distinctly different masses." #BlackHole #ThursdayThoughts #Astronomy
https://www.universetoday.com/145743/astronomers-detected-a-black-hole-merger-with-very-different-mass-objects/

In another first, the latest gravitational wave event to be detected came from the merger of two black holes of vastly different mass.

04/21/2020

Congratulations to Dr. Benjamin Dreyfus on being selected to receive the George Mason University Teaching Excellence Award! Thank you for your commitment to the students of George Mason!

04/20/2020

Congratulations to Dr. Harold Geller for winning the Legacy Award for the Jack Wood Award in Town-Gown Relations! Thank you for your efforts in strengthening the relationships between the university and the community!

"A discovery by a team of researchers led by University of Massachusetts Lowell nuclear physicists could change how atom...
04/13/2020
Discovery by Nuclear Physicists Challenges the Way We Understand Forces in the Universe

"A discovery by a team of researchers led by University of Massachusetts Lowell nuclear physicists could change how atoms are understood by scientists and help explain extreme phenomena in outer space." #physics #astrophysics #astronomy #science #nuclearphysics
https://scitechdaily.com/discovery-by-nuclear-physicists-challenges-the-way-we-understand-forces-in-the-universe/

A discovery by a team of researchers led by University of Massachusetts Lowell nuclear physicists could change how atoms are understood by scientists and help explain extreme phenomena in outer space. The breakthrough by the researchers revealed that a symmetry that exists within the core of ato

"New observations reveal that an “extraordinary” optical illusion on a massive scale is making a jet from the galaxy 3C ...
04/09/2020
A Black Hole’s Energy Beam is Seemingly Breaking the Laws of Physics

"New observations reveal that an “extraordinary” optical illusion on a massive scale is making a jet from the galaxy 3C 279 appears to move 20 times faster than the speed of light".
https://www.vice.com/en_in/article/m7qyvv/a-black-holes-energy-beam-is-seemingly-breaking-the-laws-of-physics #Physics #Astrophysics #GMUscience #ThursdayThoughts

New observations reveal that an “extraordinary” optical illusion on a massive scale is making a jet from the galaxy 3C 279 appear to move 20 times faster than the speed of light.

Congratulations to Lara Kamal on being named "a 2020 Goldwater Scholar for her commitment to STEM research!" https://www...
04/09/2020

Congratulations to Lara Kamal on being named "a 2020 Goldwater Scholar for her commitment to STEM research!" https://www2.gmu.edu/news/584721
#GMUCOS #GoldwaterScholarship #ThursdayThoughts #Scholar #Astrophysicist

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George Mason University, Planetary Hall, Room 203, 4400 University Drive, MSN 3F3
Fairfax, VA
22030

General information

Our faculty is deeply committed to encouraging students to engage in research on the frontiers of knowledge. We offer a PhD in Physics, MS in Applied & Engineering Physics and Undergraduate degrees in Physics and Astronomy.

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Tuesday 09:00 - 17:00
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Friday 09:00 - 17:00

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(703) 993-1280

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Thanks to the 160+ people and families that joined tonights Virtual Evening Under the Stars. We will do it again! For those that couldn't make it, here is a video:
"The mechanism of the vertical circulation of the waters of the oceans". The reason for the formation of hydrogen sulfide in the Black Sea. Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences https://vk.com/ioran The wind waves enrich the water with oxygen only to a depth of several tens of meters of the seas and oceans surface, while the whirlpools deliver the water enriched with oxygen to a depth of more than 10 km. (Mariana Trench) How does this happen: The waters of the lakes, seas and oceans of the northern hemisphere rotate counterclockwise, and the waters of the southern hemisphere rotate clockwise, forming giant whirlpools. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_gyre As is known, everything that rotates, including whirlpools, has the property of a gyroscope (whirligig) to maintain the vertical position of the axis in space, regardless of the rotation of the Earth. If you look at the Earth from the side of the Sun, the whirlpools, rotating with the Earth, overturn, due to which the whirlpools precess, resulting in a vertical movement of ocean water. http://goo.gl/AM5g1s The presented theory can easily be verified by relation between the oxygen content and the whirlpools rotation speed. Based on the map of the depths and currents of the seas and oceans. The higher the current velocity, the greater the oxygen content and the lower the hydrogen sulfide content. https://youtu.be/ihM1I5r_MUg https://youtu.be/X6PavdKXIE8 List of seas with low oxygen content: Black Sea. East of the Mediterranean. Gulf of Mexico. Norway fjords. As we see, whirlpools are involved not only in the horizontal circulation of the sea and ocean waters, but also in the vertical. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dead_zone_(ecology) https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/ocean-dead-zones/ The coefficient of oxygen content can be expressed mathematically by the following formula O = V / G V - whirlpool rotation speed, km / h. G - depth of the reservoir, km. Black Sea 0.2 / 1200 = 0.00016 Sea of Okhotsk 1/800 = 0.0012 Vertical movement of ocean waters can be convincingly modeled using simple experience. For this, a half-filled vessel with a rotating liquid (bucket, tumbler, mixer) must be rotated around itself (in orbit). If the liquid in the bucket rotates to the right, the bucket around itself (in orbit) must be rotated to the left. http://bourabai.ru/articles/black_sea.htm Vertical and horizontal circulation is a vital fundamental law of nature, without which life in the ocean would be impossible. During the vertical and horizontal circulation, there are also side non-vital effects of nature: ebb and flow, seasonal sea-level rise, killer waves. Real-time sea current speed: http://portal.esimo.ru/portal https://www.ndbc.noaa.gov https://ru.nencom.com/spravochnik/energoresursy/globalnaya-onlayn-karta-vetrov http://fermi.jhuapl.edu/sat_ocean.html —————————————————————————————— Seasonal increase in the level of waters of the seas and oceans. Institute of Water Problems, RAS https://vk.com/club134348321 The waters of the lakes, seas and oceans of the northern hemisphere rotate counterclockwise, and the waters of the southern hemisphere rotate clockwise, forming cyclonic gyres. The main cause of rotation of the whirlpools are local winds, flowing into the seas and oceans of the river and the deflecting force of Coriolis. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_gyre And the higher the speed of the winds, the higher the speed of rotation of the whirlpools, and as a result, the higher the centrifugal force of the whirlpools, thereby increasing the water level of the seas and oceans. And the lower the speed of rotation of the whirlpools, the lower the level of water, seas and oceans. https://youtu.be/ihM1I5r_MUg The speed of currents along the perimeter of the seas and oceans is not the same everywhere and depends on the depth of the coast. In the shallow part of the seas and oceans, the flow moves fast, and in the deep water part of the seas and oceans the flow moves slowly .. Seasonal rise in the water level is observed not along the entire coast of the seas and oceans, but only on those coasts where the high angular velocity of the currents and, as a result, the high centrifugal force of the water. (Centrifugal force F = mv2 / r). On straight coasts, where currents do not have an angular velocity, the water level does not rise. Real-time sea current speed http://portal.esimo.ru/portal https://www.ndbc.noaa.gov https://ru.nencom.com/spravochnik/energoresursy/globalnaya-onlayn-karta-vetrov The waters of the Gulf of Finland rotate counterclockwise, forming a whirlpool in the form of an ellipse. And when the seasonal south-westerly winds unwind the whirlpool to 5 km / h, the centrifugal force of the whirlpool rises, so that on the east coast of the Gulf of Finland the water level rises to 30 cm. A similar pattern of seasonal increase in water levels is observed in all lakes, seas and oceans .. The average depth of the Gulf of Finland is about 50 meters, on the east coast is about 5 meters, in the west of the bay it is about 100 meters, for this reason the linear and angular velocity of currents on the east coast of the Gulf of Finland is much higher (as much as the depth of the coast increases current velocity) .. In the Gulf of Finland, the seasonal increase in water levels has two peaks: in August-September and in December-January and in time they coincide with the season of south-westerly winds. The speed of the current in the Gulf of Finland reaches from 2 to 17 km / hour, and the maximum speed of the current on Earth reaches 30 km / hour, the wind speed is more than 100 km / hour. http://goo.gl/eYVTo6 http://esimo.oceanography.ru/esp1/index.php?sea_code=1§ion=6&menu_code=1734 The waters of the North Sea rotate counterclockwise, forming a huge whirlpool. And when seasonal northwestern storm winds unleash a whirlpool (up to 20 km / h on the southern coast), the centrifugal force of the whirlpool rises, making the level on the southern coast of the North Sea up to 5 meters. (Storm surge 2.5 meters, centrifugal surge 2.5 meters). https://de.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:North_Sea_Currents.svg https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Sea_flood_of_1953 The waters of the Caspian Sea rotate counterclockwise, forming a whirlpool in the form of an ellipse. And when the seasonal winds and the flood river Volga unleash a whirlpool, the centrifugal force of the whirlpool rises, making the water level up to 1 meter on the north coast of the Caspian Sea. The average depth of the Caspian Sea is about 200 meters, on the north coast about 5 meters, on the south coast - about 500m. Due to this, in the north of the Caspian Sea the speed of the current increases from 1 to 10 km / h. In the Caspian Sea, the peak of the seasonal rise in water level is observed in June-August and coincides in time with the season of winds and high water of the Volga River. During a drought over the Volga River basin, the level of the Caspian Sea does not rise. http://tapemark.narod.ru/more/06.png http://goo.gl/47tXq2 In the Bay of Bengal, in the season of monsoon winds, the whirlpool speed rises to 10 km / h, making the seasonal rise in water levels up to 1.2 meters. http://www.aziya-tur.ru/bengal%27skii-zaliv.php Seasonal increase in the level of the Black Sea (up to 40 cm) is most pronounced in the southeastern part of the sea, where in summer the angular velocity of the currents reaches its maximum value. http://tapemark.narod.ru/more/07.html The assumption that the cause of the seasonal rise in the water level may be the pressure of the atmosphere, the flow of the rivers, the temperature difference and the salinity of the waters do not hold water, these factors may raise the water level by a few cm, but no more. The presented theory can be easily verified by relating the velocity of the currents to the level of the seas and oceans. (Based on a map of depths and currents, seas and oceans). https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annual_cycle_of_sea_level_height https://research.csiro.au/slrwavescoast/sea-level/sea-level-change/ http://www.okeanavt.ru/tainiokeana/1066mifosrednemurovne.html —————————————————————————————— High and low tides are the result of the earth rotation and of the whirlpools. Department of Oceanology, MSU https://vk.com/ocean_msu There is a strict pattern - tides are formed not along the entire coast of the seas and oceans, but only on those coasts with a high current velocity, and the higher the velocity of the currents, the higher the amplitude of the tidal wave. No tides are formed on these coasts where currents do not have a high velocity. The waters of the lakes, seas and oceans of the northern hemisphere rotate counterclockwise, and the waters of the southern hemisphere rotate clockwise, forming giant whirlpools. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_gyre As is well known, everything that rotates, including whirlpools, has the property of a gyroscope (whirligig) to maintain the vertical position of the axis in space, regardless of the rotation of the Earth. If you look at the Earth from the side of the Sun, the whirlpools, rotating with the Earth, overturn, twice a day, due to which the whirlpools precess (sway by 1-2 degrees) and reflect a tidal wave from themselves along the entire perimeter of the whirlpool. http://goo.gl/AM5g1s https://goo.gl/images/M4SJq8 The waters of the White Sea rotate counterclockwise, forming a huge whirlpool-gyroscope, which, while precessing, reflects a tidal wave along the entire perimeter of the White Sea. A similar pattern of tides is observed in all lakes, seas, and oceans. Sailing Directions of the White Sea https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sailing_Directions http://tapemark.narod.ru/more/22.png The waters of the Mediterranean Sea rotate counterclockwise, forming tides 10-15 cm high. But in the Gulf of Gabes, off the coast of Tunisia, the height of the tides reaches three meters, and sometimes more, and this is considered one of the mysteries of nature. But at the same time, a whirlpool rotates in the Gulf of Gabes, precessing and reflecting an additional tidal wave. https://youtu.be/ihM1I5r_MUg The tidal wave in the Amazon River is created a huge planetary whirlpool with a diameter of several thousand kilometers, rotating between South America and North Africa, covering the mouth of the Amazon River. The pattern of tidal wave movement over the perimeter of the North Atlantic planetary whirlpool. https://youtu.be/ZEhm_ONTQKc The tidal wave length depends on the whirlpool diameter. And the tidal wave height depends on the whirlpool rotation speed, the Earth orbital velocity, and the whirlpool tilting time (12 hours). А = V1•V2/t where: A - tidal wave amplitude (precession angle). V1 - whirlpool rotation speed. V2 - the Earth orbital velocity. t - whirlpool tilting time (12 hours). Table of the dependence of the amplitude of the tides on the speed of the current, on any coast. 1 km / h - 1 meter 5 km / h - 5 meter 10 km / h - 10 meter 15 km / h - 15 meter The amplitude of the tides also depends on the size of the whirlpool, the amount of water under the whirlpool, the distance from the coast to the whirlpool and the direction of flow (north, south, west, east). The current, which moves along the coast, reflects a tidal wave both towards the coast and towards the open sea. The whirlpool theory of tides can easily be verified by relating the height of the tidal wave to the speed of rotation of the whirlpools. From the height of the tides, you can determine the speed of the current along the coast, based on the atlas of sea currents in real time: http://portal.esimo.ru/portal https://www.ndbc.noaa.gov https://ru.nencom.com/spravochnik/energoresursy/globalnaya-onlayn-karta-vetrov http://fermi.jhuapl.edu/sat_ocean.html —————————————————————————————— Killer Waves The official group of the Institute of Earth Sciences SFU https://vk.com/ogbarannikova A tidal wave moving across the ocean is called a soliton. When a soliton collides with the coastline of the continent, ebbs and flows are formed. When solitons collide, two adjacent whirlpools, a killer wave is formed. https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Killer Waves This can be checked by throwing two stones at the same time in a bath of water. When a soliton collides, the resulting killer wave foams and a larger wave pulls a smaller wave somewhat. You can create a half-meter-killer wave with a duration of 0.5 seconds, if two divers simultaneously jumped with a “bomb” into the reservoir from a height of 2 meters, with a distance between them of 3 meters. If you throw two pieces of sugar into a glass of tea at the same time and a killer wave forms there. The mechanism of formation of a tidal wave in rivers and killer waves in the oceans is similar, and the height of the tidal wave in a river depends on the speed of the flow of water in a river. https://goo.gl/images/Tm13py https://goo.gl/images/amdjwj The location of the possible stoning of the killer waves can be predicted from the whirlpool charts and, accordingly, to lay routes. An approaching killer wave or tsunami can be partially neutralized by creating a series of oncoming waves, torpedoes or projectiles. If two waves do not collide with each other, then they freely walk on the ocean, and they are called solitons or Rossby waves. "Three sisters are a collision of a soliton with three storm waves .. Solitons, reflected around themselves in whirlpools, colliding with storm waves, create a killer wave and are the main cause of ships wreck. And knowing the distribution schedule of solitons by whirlpools, one should accordingly choose the time and route of movement in the seas and oceans. The perimeter of the seas and oceans, I believe, is the most dangerous place for anchorage and movement of ships, especially where there is a high whirlpool speed. The center of the whirlpool, I believe, is the safest place to wait out bad weather, and it is advisable to install a buoy in the center of the whirlpool. https://goo.gl/images/icF4zf The map shows the areas of the most frequent occurrence of killer waves. In the North Atlantic, killer waves form mainly along the perimeter of the North Atlantic planetary whirlpool, as a result of a collision of a tidal wave with storm waves (three sisters) .. http://www.freegrab.net/Tide%20waves.gif The animation shows how in the area of the Bermuda Triangle, as a result of the collision of tidal waves reflected by the North Atlantic and South Atlantic planetary whirlpools, a killer wave is formed .. The clock set on the animation shows that killer waves in the Bermuda Triangle are formed twice a day at 12 and 24 hours. Based on the demonstrated animation, you can make a calendar of formation of killer waves not only for future years but also for previous ones. In the season of long, eastern winds in the north of the Sea of Okhotsk and floods of the rivers flowing into the Penzhinsky Bay, the current speed in the north of the Sea of Okhotsk increases several times, due to which, in the north of the Sea of Okhotsk, the water level, the amplitude of tides and killer waves increases. The current, which moves along the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, reflects a tidal wave both towards the coast and towards the open sea. (South). https://goo.gl/images/u3AsBQ The discovery was published in the Russian-German scientific peer-reviewed journal “Eastern European Scientific Journal” No. 3/2015. Page 64. June http://www.auris-archiv.de/journal.html Scientific journal "NBICS-Science. Technologies" No. 4/2018. Page 104. (Nanotechnology Society of Russia) http://www.nanonewsnet.ru/news/2018/vyshel-chetvertyi-nomer-zhurnala-nbiks-naukatekhnologii Continued: The mechanism of the vertical circulation of the waters of the oceans. Forum Federal Target Program "World Ocean" http://okeany.com/forum/784.htm "Forum on the Flagship" http://vmf.net.ru/forums/viewtopic.php?f=6&t=2328 French Maritime Forum (Discussion). http://forummarine.forumactif.com/t9357-le-flux-et-reflux-est-le-resultat-de-la-rotation-de-la-terre English forum. "Weather/Earth sciences" https://www.wxforum.net/index.php?topic=35094.0